grants to large cities are destined for domestic employment service. In effect, they exchange one household environment for another, so the norms of close control of young female behavior are not really contradicted.
But the cultural explanation of the differences between these world areas is not in itself adequate. Although Latin America, Africa, and Asia are all classified as "developing," there are substantial differences in economic organization. Temporary migration to cities is more characteristic of Africa and Asia than it is of Latin America, and, as already mentioned, fluctuating labor demand is part of the explanation. If the labor surplus in large cities of Asia and Africa is greater than in Latin America, females will face greater competition from males for the available positions, and females would be further handicapped by cultural constraints.
In the process of economic development, however, in the large cities extreme sex imbalances, whether favoring males or females, are inherently unstable and over time they will move toward a more even balance. Caldwell (12) indicates that a more even balance in the sexes of migrants to cities of Ghana is in process. Bogue and Zachariah (34, p. 45) say with respect to metropolitan areas of India, "Although originally this migration may have some of the aspects of a 'pioneering' movement, comprised predominantly of males, the 1941-51 decade witnessed the removal to the cities of almost as many women as men." In Latin America the same movement is taking place, in part because of the preference of the girls and young women for work other than domestic service.
Marital status is obviously related to the sex balance. The further the sex ratio is from 100, the greater the proportion of migrants who are single. But there is still considerable variation depending upon the willingness of men to leave their families back home. In Asia and Africa this is more common than in Latin America. Nevertheless, Zachariah (35, p. 383) in his study of Bombay states, "In each age-sex group the proportion single was found to be . . . greater than in the general population of the states of origin." Caldwell found that in rural areas of Ghana single males (after he controlled for age) were more likely to be planning to migrate to the cities. Controlling for age, we find that migrants to large cities are disproportionately single when compared to the populations from which they originate.
The significance of marital status upon other forms of migrant selectivity can be seen by reference to Kuznets' concept of "detachment" (36, xxxiii). He believes that detachment facilitates economic progress. "Indeed, we cannot exaggerate the importance of this detachment of wide groups of the population, particularly among the young generation, from family origin andbelief to this effect. Ravenstein (21, p. 199) stated as one of his laws, "Females are more migratory than males," butThe conclusion to be drawn from this is that if economic opportunity and living conditions in the cities were to be improved, return migration rates would he lower.an, et al. (1 3, Ch. 1). Substantively, Ghana differs from Mexico in the predominantly male rural-urban migration, in the multilingual character of the society, in the existence of polygamy, and